# AP Physics 1 review of Energy and Work | Physics | Khan Academy

TLDRThe video script delves into the concept of energy, explaining its various forms such as kinetic, gravitational potential, and spring potential energy, and how they can be transformed or transferred without creation or destruction. It emphasizes the conservation of energy, where the total energy in a system remains constant when no external work is done. The script also explores the principles of work, illustrating how it relates to energy transfer and can be calculated using force and displacement. Additionally, it introduces power as the rate of work done or energy transferred per unit time, using examples to clarify these fundamental physics concepts.

###### Takeaways

- π Energy exists in many forms and can be transferred or transformed between objects or systems, but it cannot be created or destroyed, known as the conservation of energy.
- π Work is the transfer of energy and is quantified by the amount of energy transferred, with the unit of measurement being Joules.
- π Kinetic energy is the energy due to motion, calculated as 0.5 * mass * (speed)^2.
- π Gravitational potential energy is due to an object's height and is calculated as mass * gravitational acceleration * height, with reference to a chosen zero level.
- π§ Spring potential energy is related to a compressed or stretched spring and is calculated as 0.5 * spring constant * displacement (x).
- π© Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic, gravitational potential, and spring potential energies within a system and does not include thermal energy.
- π‘ Thermal energy is heat energy generated by dissipative forces like friction and air resistance, calculated by the force size times the distance over which it acts.
- βοΈ The conservation of energy principle states that without external work, the total energy of a system remains constant.
- π Work can also be calculated by the formula: force * displacement * cos(angle between force and displacement), and it has units of Joules.
- π The work-energy principle states that the net work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy.
- β± Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is transferred, measured in Watts (Joules per second), and can be calculated by dividing work by time or energy change by time.

###### Q & A

### What is the fundamental principle behind the conservation of energy?

-The fundamental principle behind the conservation of energy is that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred between objects or systems. This means that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant over time.

### What are the two main types of energy discussed in the transcript and what are their formulas?

-The two main types of energy discussed are kinetic energy and potential energy. The formula for kinetic energy is KE = 1/2 * m * v^2, where m is the mass and v is the speed. The formula for gravitational potential energy is PE = m * g * h, where m is the mass, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height above the reference point.

### How does mechanical energy differ from thermal energy?

-Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic, gravitational potential, and spring potential energy in a system and does not include thermal energy. Thermal energy, on the other hand, is the heat energy generated by dissipative forces like friction and air resistance.

### What is the relationship between work and energy transfer?

-Work is the amount of energy transferred from one system or object to another. When work is done, it results in a transfer of energy, and the amount of work done is equal to the amount of energy transferred.

### How can you calculate the work done by a force on an object?

-The work done by a force on an object can be calculated using the formula W = F * d * cos(theta), where W is the work, F is the magnitude of the force, d is the displacement of the object, and theta is the angle between the force and the displacement.

### What is the work-energy principle?

-The work-energy principle states that the total work or net work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy. This principle is useful for determining how the speed of an object changes when multiple forces are acting on it.

### How does the concept of power relate to work and energy?

-Power is the amount of work done per unit of time or the rate at which energy is transferred. It is calculated by dividing the work done (or the change in energy) by the time taken to do the work. The unit of power is the Watt, which is equivalent to one Joule per second.

### What happens to the total mechanical energy in a system when an object moves from one platform to another without external forces like friction?

-In a system where an object moves from one platform to another without external forces like friction, the total mechanical energy remains constant. This is because the energy is simply transferred from one form (kinetic) to another (gravitational potential) within the system.

### How does the steepness of an incline affect the power developed by the force of gravity on a sliding object?

-The steepness of an incline affects the power developed by the force of gravity on a sliding object by changing the rate at which the work is done. A steeper incline results in a faster descent and thus a higher rate of power because the same amount of work is completed in a shorter amount of time.

### What is the significance of the reference height (H=zero) in calculating gravitational potential energy?

-The reference height (H=zero) is significant in calculating gravitational potential energy because it establishes a point where the potential energy is considered zero. The change in gravitational potential energy is what matters, not the absolute value, making the choice of reference height arbitrary for calculations.

### How can you determine the net work done on an object using a force versus position graph?

-The net work done on an object can be determined by calculating the area under the force versus position graph. Positive work is represented by the area above the x-axis, while negative work is represented by the area below the x-axis. The net work is the algebraic sum of these areas.

###### Outlines

##### π Understanding Energy and its Conservation

This paragraph introduces the concept of energy, highlighting its various forms and the principle of conservation. It explains that energy can be transferred or transformed within a system but cannot be created or destroyed. The different types of energy discussed include kinetic, gravitational potential, and spring potential energy, all of which contribute to mechanical energy. The paragraph also differentiates between mechanical and thermal energy and emphasizes that no change in a system's energy occurs without external work. An example problem involving a box sliding between platforms illustrates the conservation of mechanical energy when external forces like friction are negligible.

##### π‘ Calculating Work and its Implications

This section delves into the concept of work as a transfer of energy and its relationship with energy conservation. It defines work in terms of force, displacement, and the angle between them, and introduces the formula for calculating work. The paragraph discusses how work can be positive or negative, depending on the direction of the force relative to motion. It uses the scenario of boxes sliding down ramps with different heights and angles to demonstrate how work done by gravity compares in each case. The work-energy principle is introduced, which equates the net work done on an object to its change in kinetic energy. The paragraph also explains how to visualize work as the area under a force-position graph.

##### β±οΈ Power: The Rate of Doing Work

This paragraph focuses on power, defined as the amount of work done per unit of time or energy transferred per second. It explains that power is measured in Watts, which is equivalent to a Joule per second. The section discusses how power can be increased either by doing more work in the same amount of time or by reducing the time it takes to do the work. Using the example of boxes sliding down ramps with different steepness, it illustrates how the rate of power delivery varies with the incline's angle. The steeper the ramp, the faster the box slides, and the higher the power output, despite the same amount of work being done in both cases.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### π‘Energy

##### π‘Work

##### π‘Conservation of Energy

##### π‘Kinetic Energy

##### π‘Gravitational Potential Energy

##### π‘Spring Potential Energy

##### π‘Mechanical Energy

##### π‘Thermal Energy

##### π‘Force

##### π‘Power

##### π‘Work-Energy Principle

###### Highlights

Energy can be transferred between objects or systems but cannot be created or destroyed.

Work is the transfer of energy and is measured by the amount of energy transferred.

Kinetic energy is due to an object's motion and is calculated as 1/2 * mass * (speed)^2.

Gravitational potential energy is due to an object's height and is calculated as mass * gravitational acceleration * height.

Spring potential energy is related to a compressed or stretched spring and is calculated as 1/2 * spring constant * x (compression/stretch).

Mechanical energy is the sum of kinetic, gravitational potential, and spring potential energy in a system.

Thermal energy is heat energy generated by dissipative forces like friction and air resistance.

The conservation of energy principle states that if no external work is done on a system, the total energy remains constant.

The work-energy principle states that the net work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy.

Work can also be calculated by multiplying the force on an object by its displacement and the cosine of the angle between them.

Work is measured in Joules and can be positive or negative, depending on whether energy is gained or lost.

Power is the amount of work done per unit of time and is measured in Watts (Joules per second).

The rate of power can differ even if the amount of work done is the same, depending on the time taken to do the work.

In a system with frictionless motion, the total mechanical energy remains constant as energy transfers between kinetic and potential forms.

When considering a system, it's crucial to define the objects included to accurately calculate energy and work.

The area under a force-displacement graph represents the work done, with positive and negative areas indicating the direction of energy transfer.

In a scenario with a box sliding down a ramp, the steeper the ramp, the greater the average power developed by gravity.

The work done by gravity on an object is equal to the negative product of the mass, gravitational acceleration, and height.

The change in kinetic energy of an object can be used to determine the net work done on it, which is a key concept in solving energy-related problems.

###### Transcripts

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