# Probability - Independent and Dependent Events

TLDRThe video explains the difference between independent and dependent events through examples with a bag of colored marbles. Independent events do not affect each other, while dependent events are affected by prior events. Calculating probabilities for independent events is straightforward, but for dependent events you must account for changes after each selection. Examples show probabilities for selecting certain marble colors with and without replacement to demonstrate independent versus dependent outcomes.

###### Takeaways

- π Independent events do not influence each other's outcomes, while dependent events do.
- π² The probability of selecting a red marble from a bag of mixed marbles is calculated as the number of red marbles divided by the total number of marbles.
- π With replacement, the probability of consecutive events remains unchanged since the total number of marbles is restored after each selection.
- π Without replacement, the probability of subsequent events changes because the total number of marbles decreases after each selection.
- π The example used involves a bag containing a mix of red, blue, green, and yellow marbles, with specific quantities for each color.
- β Calculating probability involves dividing the number of favorable outcomes by the total possible outcomes.
- π The 'with replacement' scenario illustrates independent events, where the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of another.
- β The 'without replacement' scenario illustrates dependent events, where the outcome of one event affects the probability of subsequent events.
- π Part B of the example demonstrates independent events with the selection of a blue then a green marble, showing no effect on probabilities.
- π Part C demonstrates dependent events with the selection of a yellow then a red marble, affecting the probability due to the reduced number of marbles.

###### Q & A

### What is the difference between independent and dependent events?

-Independent events are events that do not depend on each other. The outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other event. Dependent events are events that do depend on each other. The outcome of one event influences or determines the outcome of the other event.

### What is the probability formula?

-The probability formula is: Probability = Number of favorable outcomes / Total number of possible outcomes

### What does 'with replacement' mean?

-'With replacement' means that after an item is selected, it is placed back into the total population. So the probability of selecting that item again does not change.

### What does 'without replacement' mean?

-'Without replacement' means that once an item is selected, it is not placed back into the total population. So the probabilities will change as there are fewer items to select from on subsequent draws.

### What is the probability of selecting a red marble?

-There are 8 red marbles out of 25 total marbles. So the probability of selecting a red marble is 8/25 = 0.32 or 32%.

### What is the probability of selecting a blue marble and then a green marble with replacement?

-With replacement, the probability does not change between draws. There is a 7/25 = 28% chance of getting a blue marble, and independently a 6/25 = 24% chance of getting a green marble. The combined probability is 0.28 * 0.24 = 0.0672 or 6.72%.

### What is an example of independent events from the passage?

-Selecting a blue marble and then a green marble with replacement is an example of independent events. The probability of getting a green marble does not depend on whether you got a blue marble first.

### What is an example of dependent events from the passage?

-Selecting a yellow marble and then a red marble without replacement is an example of dependent events. The probability of getting a red marble on the second draw depends on whether you took out a yellow marble first.

### What is the probability of selecting two blue marbles with replacement?

-With replacement, the probability is the same on both draws. There is a 7/25 chance on the first draw and 7/25 chance on the second draw. 7/25 * 7/25 = 0.0784 or 7.84% chance.

### What is the probability of selecting two green marbles without replacement?

-Without replacement, the probability changes after the first draw. Originally 6/25 chance of green, but after taking one out only 5/24 chance on the second draw. So 6/25 * 5/24 = 0.05 or 5% chance.

###### Outlines

##### π² Defining Independent vs. Dependent Probability Events

Introduces and defines independent and dependent probability events. Gives an example with selecting colored marbles from a bag to demonstrate the difference between independent and dependent events.

##### π Identifying Independent vs. Dependent Events

Works through multiple probability scenarios involving selecting marbles from a bag with and without replacement. Explains how replacement impacts dependency of events. Identifies which scenarios represent independent vs. dependent events.

##### π Calculating Dependent Probability

Calculates the probability of selecting two specific colored marbles without replacement as an example of dependent probability.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### π‘probability

##### π‘independent events

##### π‘dependent events

##### π‘replacement

##### π‘without replacement

##### π‘favorable outcomes

##### π‘total possible outcomes

##### π‘marbles

##### π‘bag

##### π‘event

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###### Transcripts

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