Roman Numeral Chord Notation - Music Theory

Music Matters
25 Aug 202217:31
EducationalLearning
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TLDRThe video explains the difference between two chord labeling systems - Basic Roman and Extended Roman. It first covers how chords are constructed in a major key, with chord I, IV and V being major while II, III and VI are minor. It then explains the uppercase and lowercase notation in Extended Roman to distinguish between major and minor chords. The video clarifies what constitutes major, minor, diminished and augmented chords, including by counting semitones between notes. It advocates using Simple Roman to avoid mistakes around chord types. Overall, it aims to elucidate the key differences between the two chord systems.

Takeaways
  • 😀 There are two systems for labeling chords: Basic Roman and Extended Roman
  • 👍🏽 Basic Roman uses uppercase Roman numerals and doesn't distinguish between major/minor chords
  • 🎹 Extended Roman uses uppercase for major chords and lowercase for minor chords
  • 🎶 In the key of C major, chords I, IV and V are major; chords II, III and VI are minor
  • 🎼 In a minor key, chord I and chord IV are minor; chord V and chord VI are major
  • 🔈 Diminished chords have a minor 3rd and diminished 5th above the root note
  • 👌 Augmented chords have a major 3rd and augmented 5th above the root note
  • 📝 To identify chord quality, count semitones between notes - major is 4,7; minor is 3,7
  • ✏️ Basic Roman is simpler and avoids mistakes in identifying major/minor chords
  • 💡 The mix of major and minor chords makes working with chords more interesting
Q & A
  • What are the two systems for labeling chords?

    -The two systems are Basic Roman and Extended Roman.

  • What do Roman numerals indicate when labeling chords?

    -Roman numerals indicate the scale degree, so we know we are talking about chords and not other musical elements like fingering or bar numbers.

  • In a major key, which chords are major and which are minor?

    -In a major key, chords I, IV, and V are major. Chords II, III, and VI are minor. Chord VII is diminished.

  • How can you identify a major chord by counting semitones?

    -In a major chord, count up 4 semitones from the root to the third, and 7 semitones from the root to the fifth. So 4 and 7 above the root indicates a major chord.

  • How does Extended Roman notation indicate major and minor chords?

    -Extended Roman uses uppercase for major chords and lowercase for minor chords.

  • Why does a major key contain both major and minor chords?

    -It's because the key signature determines which notes are available. For example, in C major, an F# would make chord II major, but there is no F# in the key signature.

  • What are the differences between chords in major keys versus minor keys?

    -In major keys, there are 3 major chords (I, IV, V) and 3 minor chords. In minor keys, using the harmonic minor scale, there are only 2 minor chords (I and IV) but 2 major chords (V and VI) as well.

  • What interval and semitone patterns make augmented and diminished chords?

    -Augmented chords have a major third and augmented fifth, which is 4 and 8 semitones above the root. Diminished chords have a minor third and diminished fifth, which is 3 and 6 semitones above the root.

  • Why does the instructor recommend using Basic Roman notation?

    -Basic Roman notation doesn't require distinguishing between chord qualities like major, minor, diminished. So it avoids potential mistakes and keeps things simple.

  • Where can I access the online music theory courses mentioned?

    -The online courses are available at www.mmcourses.co.uk, which also has information about Maestros membership and other resources.

Outlines
00:00
🎵 Introducing Chord Labeling Systems

This paragraph introduces the two main systems for labeling chords - Basic Roman and Extended Roman. It explains that Basic Roman uses uppercase numerals while Extended Roman distinguishes between major and minor chords through uppercase and lowercase. The paragraph then demonstrates how to build triads and label them with Roman numerals in the key of C major.

05:00
🎹 Distinguishing Major and Minor Chords

This paragraph further explains the difference between Basic and Extended Roman numerals. It states that major chords are uppercase and minor chords are lowercase in Extended Roman. The paragraph then clarifies which chords are major and minor in major and minor keys, using the intervals between notes or semitones to determine if a chord is major, minor, diminished, or augmented.

10:03
🎼 Harmonic Minor Chords in Minor Keys

This paragraph focuses specifically on chords in minor keys, using the harmonic minor scale. It explains that in harmonic minor, the 7th degree is raised, altering some chords. As a result, minor keys contain both major and minor chords unlike major keys. The paragraph analyses each chord in harmonic minor to identify if it is major, minor, diminished, or augmented.

15:04
🙌 Benefits of Basic Roman Numerals

This concluding paragraph summarizes the benefits of using Basic rather than Extended Roman numerals. It states that Basic Roman avoids potential confusion over chord qualities. It then promotes the music theory courses available for more detailed learning and the Maestros community for further musical engagement and feedback.

Mindmap
Keywords
💡chords
Chords are groups of 3 or more notes played together. They are the harmonic building blocks of music. The video focuses on triads, which are chords made up of 3 notes - a root note, a third, and a fifth above the root. Understanding how chords are constructed and labeled is key to grasping music theory concepts discussed in the video.
💡diatonic chords
These are the chords that naturally occur inside a key or scale. For example, in the key of C major, the diatonic chords are C major, D minor, E minor, F major, G major, A minor and B diminished. These chords comprise the harmony within the key.
💡roman numerals
Roman numerals are used to label chords to distinguish them from other numbers in music like bar numbers or fingering indications. Each chord is numbered based on its scale degree - so in C major, the C chord is chord I, D minor is chord II, etc.
💡basic roman
The basic roman numeral system simply labels chords with roman numerals without any extra symbols. So in key of C, the chords would be: I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii (all uppercase). It does not distinguish between major and minor quality.
💡extended roman
The extended roman numeral system uses upper and lowercase to indicate major and minor chords. Major chords are uppercase and minor chords are lowercase. So in C major the chords would be: I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, vii??. This allows you to see major vs minor at a glance.
💡scale degrees
The notes of a scale are numbered by scale degrees, from 1 to 7. The first note of the scale is scale degree 1 or the tonic. Each subsequent note is the next scale degree. Chords are built on these scale degrees, so they inherit the numbers as their chord names in roman numerals.
💡intervals
An interval is the distance between two musical notes. Intervals are used to define the quality of chords - a major chord has a major third and perfect fifth above the root, while a minor chord has a minor third and perfect fifth, for example. Understanding intervals helps define chord qualities.
💡major and minor chords
Major chords have a major third and perfect fifth above the root note. Minor chords have a minor third and perfect fifth above the root. These intervals give major and minor chords their distinct sound and help categorize their quality.
💡diminished and augmented chords
Besides major and minor, other chord qualities discussed are diminished and augmented chords. Diminished chords have a minor third and diminished fifth, while augmented chords have a major third and augmented fifth. These qualities create more dissonant, tense sounds.
💡harmonic minor scale
Unlike the natural minor scale, the harmonic minor scale raises the 7th scale degree to create a leading tone to the tonic. This affects the chords that can occur - specifically it enables both a major V and major vi chord, increasing harmonic possibilities.
Highlights

There are two systems for labeling chords: Basic Roman and Extended Roman.

In the key of C major, chords I, IV and V are major. Chords II, III and VI are minor.

In a major chord, the third is a major third above the root, and the fifth is a perfect fifth.

In Extended Roman notation, major chords are uppercase and minor chords are lowercase.

In a minor key, only chords I and IV are minor. Chords V and VI are major.

In a minor key, chords II and VII are diminished chords.

Chord III in a minor key is an augmented chord.

Basic Roman notation is simpler as you don't have to distinguish between major and minor chords.

To construct triads, add a third and fifth above each note of the scale.

Roman numerals are used to label chords to avoid confusion with other numbers in music.

In a major chord, count up 4 and 7 semitones from the root note.

In a minor chord, count up 3 and 7 semitones from the root note.

In a diminished chord, count up 3 and 6 semitones from the root note.

In an augmented chord, count up 4 and 8 semitones from the root note.

The online music theory courses progress step-by-step from beginner to advanced levels.

Transcripts
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