# Kinematics of Movieg Fluids 1 | Classical Mechanics | ASSISTANT PROFESSOR 2024 | RPSC | MPSC | L3

TLDRThe transcript appears to be from a lecture series on fluid mechanics, specifically focusing on surface tension and related concepts. The speaker discusses important topics such as gravitational potential energy, viscosity, and Bernoulli's equation. The lecture also touches on the practical applications of these concepts, like the behavior of liquid drops and bubbles. The speaker encourages students to share the lecture link and announces upcoming topics, which include a deeper dive into surface tension, viscosity, and Bernoulli's equation. The lecture is part of a recorded course series available for students preparing for the Assistant Professor exam, offering valuable insights into fluid dynamics.

###### Takeaways

- ๐ The lecture series covers important topics for assistant Professors in the field of Fluid Mechanics, including topics that are not regularly covered in classical mechanics courses.
- ๐ The lecture delves into the concept of surface tension, a crucial topic in the study of moving fluids, and its various applications.
- ๐ง Surface tension is defined as the force acting along the unit length of a surface, which tries to minimize the surface area of a liquid.
- ๐ก The lecture introduces the Bernoulli equation, a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that describes how pressure changes as fluid flows along a streamline.
- ๐ The relationship between surface tension, viscosity, and the Bernoulli equation is discussed, highlighting their roles in fluid behavior.
- ๐ The concept of capillary action is explored, including how the shape of the liquid's surface in a container (concave or convex) is influenced by surface tension.
- ๐ The lecture emphasizes the importance of understanding the number of surfaces involved in fluid systems, such as the difference between free surfaces and those in contact with other substances.
- ๐ The content is relevant for students preparing for exams like the GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) and the CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) tests.
- ๐ The lecture series is available for free on the IFS app, with new lectures being released on Saturdays, continuing the discussion on capillary action, the Bernoulli equation, and viscosity.
- ๐ The lecture uses examples and analogies, such as the behavior of bubbles and the impact of surface tension on the movement of fluids, to illustrate complex concepts in a more understandable way.
- ๐ง The discussion on surface tension and its effects on fluid behavior is crucial for understanding the principles of fluid mechanics, especially in the context of capillary action and the movement of fluids in different containers.

###### Q & A

### What is the primary topic being discussed in the lecture series?

-The primary topic being discussed in the lecture series is the dynamics of moving fluids, with a focus on important topics such as gravitational potential energy and viscosity.

### What are the two main forces discussed in the context of liquid surfaces?

-The two main forces discussed in the context of liquid surfaces are cohesive forces and adhesive forces.

### How does the angle of contact affect the shape of a liquid in a container?

-The angle of contact affects the shape of a liquid in a container by determining whether the liquid surface will be concave, convex, or flat. A concave surface indicates a high surface tension, while a convex surface suggests a lower surface tension.

### What is the significance of the Bernoulli equation in the context of fluid dynamics?

-The Bernoulli equation is significant in fluid dynamics as it describes the behavior of a moving fluid in terms of its pressure, velocity, and elevation, and how energy is conserved in the fluid flow.

### What is the relationship between surface tension and the contact angle of a liquid?

-Surface tension is directly related to the contact angle of a liquid. A higher surface tension results in a smaller contact angle, indicating a stronger cohesive force between the liquid molecules, leading to a more concave liquid surface in a container.

### How does the weight of the liquid drop affect the surface tension?

-The weight of the liquid drop does not directly affect the surface tension. Surface tension is a property of the liquid that results from the cohesive forces between liquid molecules and is independent of the drop's weight. However, the weight can influence the shape of the drop and the extent to which it spreads out or remains rounded.

### What is the role of viscosity in fluid dynamics?

-Viscosity plays a crucial role in fluid dynamics as it affects the fluid's resistance to flow or deformation. It determines how easily a fluid can move or how much internal friction it has when it flows, influencing the fluid's behavior under various conditions, such as flow around objects or through pipes.

### How does the pressure inside a liquid drop compare to the surrounding pressure?

-The pressure inside a liquid drop is lower than the surrounding pressure due to the surface tension. This difference in pressure is what causes the liquid to minimize its surface area, leading to the formation of a rounded drop shape.

### What is the ultimate fate of a liquid drop if the internal pressure continues to increase?

-If the internal pressure of a liquid drop continues to increase, the drop will eventually burst or break apart. This happens when the internal pressure becomes great enough to overcome the surface tension holding the drop together.

### What is the significance of the capillary action in the context of surface tension?

-Capillary action is significant in the context of surface tension as it demonstrates how the cohesive forces within a liquid can lead to the rise or fall of the liquid in narrow spaces or tubes against gravity, due to the attractive or repulsive interactions between the liquid and the solid surface.

###### Outlines

##### ๐ Introduction to Course and Lecture Series

The paragraph introduces a series of lectures for students, presumably in a technical field. The speaker welcomes students and expresses hope that they are doing well. The lecture series covers important topics for an assistant professor position, including classical mechanics topics that are not regularly covered. The speaker mentions that the previous lectures covered gravitational potential energy and gravitational force, and the upcoming lecture will focus on the basics of surface tension.

##### ๐ Understanding Surface Tension and Its Importance

This paragraph delves into the concept of surface tension, explaining it as a force that acts on the surface of a liquid. The speaker uses the example of a bubble to illustrate how surface tension works, describing how the bubble's surface area changes when it is in contact with air. The discussion also touches on the relationship between surface tension and the shape of the liquid's surface, whether it is convex, concave, or flat. The speaker emphasizes the importance of understanding surface tension in the context of fluid dynamics.

##### ๐ฌ Exploring the Quantification of Surface Tension

The speaker explains how to quantify surface tension, using the concept of unit length and force. The explanation includes the calculation of surface tension in terms of force per unit length and how it relates to the energy stored in the surface of a fluid. The speaker also discusses the work done by surface tension and how it is represented in the form of surface energy. The paragraph concludes with a brief mention of the next topics to be covered in the series, including the Bernoulli equation and viscosity.

##### ๐ Calculation of Work Done by Surface Tension

This paragraph focuses on the calculation of work done by surface tension, using the concept of change in area and the force of surface tension. The speaker provides a detailed explanation of how to calculate the change in area and how it affects the work done. The discussion includes the mathematical representation of work done in terms of force, area, and the change in dimensions. The speaker also introduces the concept of surface energy in the context of work done by surface tension.

##### ๐งช Liquid Drop Formation and Surface Tension Dynamics

The speaker discusses the process of liquid drop formation and how surface tension plays a crucial role in this phenomenon. The explanation includes the dynamics of surface tension as it tries to minimize the surface area of the liquid. The speaker uses the example of a liquid drop to illustrate how surface tension affects the shape and size of the drop. The paragraph also touches on the concept of contact angle and how it relates to the wetting of surfaces by liquids.

##### ๐ก๏ธ Temperature Change and Its Impact on Surface Tension

This paragraph explores the relationship between temperature change and surface tension. The speaker explains how an increase in temperature can affect the surface tension of a liquid, leading to a decrease in the force acting on the surface. The discussion includes the concept of hypotetical temperature and how it relates to the conversion of work into heat energy. The speaker also mentions the importance of understanding this relationship for those preparing for assistant professor positions or other technical examinations.

##### ๐ก Recap and Upcoming Lecture Topics

The speaker concludes the current lecture by recapping the key points discussed, including the importance of surface tension and its quantification. The speaker also provides a preview of the next lecture, which will continue the discussion on surface tension, viscosity, and the Bernoulli equation. The paragraph ends with an encouragement for students to register for the recorded courses and test series available for free on the IFS app.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### ๐กSurface Tension

##### ๐กCapillary Action

##### ๐กViscosity

##### ๐กBernoulli's Equation

##### ๐กFluid Dynamics

##### ๐กLectures

##### ๐กAssistant Professor

##### ๐กGravity

##### ๐กBubble

##### ๐กPressure

###### Highlights

The lecture series covers important topics for Assistant Professors in the field of fluid mechanics, including gravitational potential energy and surface tension.

The third lecture in the series focuses on the concept of surface tension and its applications in fluid dynamics.

Surface tension is a crucial parameter in fluid dynamics, affecting how fluids behave under different conditions.

The lecture explains the relationship between surface tension and the contact angle of a liquid, which is essential for understanding capillary action.

The Bernoulli equation is discussed as a fundamental principle governing the motion of fluids and its impact on pressure changes.

The lecture delves into the concept of viscosity and its role in fluid dynamics, including how it affects fluid flow and energy dissipation.

The importance of understanding the balance between surface tension and pressure changes is emphasized for predicting the behavior of fluids in various scenarios.

The lecture introduces the idea of capillary rise and how it is influenced by factors such as the fluid's properties and the container's material.

The practical applications of fluid dynamics, such as the design of efficient pipelines and the understanding of fluid flow in engines, are discussed.

The lecture highlights the significance of the contact angle in determining the wetting properties of a liquid on a surface.

The role of surface tension in the formation and stability of bubbles and droplets is explored, with implications for processes like boiling and condensation.

The lecture provides a comprehensive overview of the principles of fluid mechanics, offering a solid foundation for further study and research in the field.

The interplay between theoretical concepts and real-world applications is emphasized, showcasing the practical relevance of fluid dynamics.

The lecture encourages students to engage with the material by asking questions and discussing concepts, fostering a deeper understanding of fluid mechanics.

The series is designed to be accessible and beneficial for students preparing for exams and professionals seeking to enhance their knowledge of fluid dynamics.

The lecture concludes with a summary of the key points and an outline of what will be covered in the next session, ensuring continuity in the learning process.

###### Transcripts

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