# 05 Concentration using % (m/m), % (v/v), %(m/v)

TLDRThis educational video script discusses various methods of measuring solute concentration in a solution. It introduces three primary equations: mass percent (% M/M), volume percent (% V/V), and mass over volume percent (% M/V). The script explains how to calculate each type, emphasizing the importance of understanding specific terms and the context in which each formula is applicable. It uses examples, such as dissolving table salt in water and mixing ethanol with water, to illustrate the calculations. The video also highlights the practical applications of these measurements, like in beer commercials indicating alcohol content by volume. The script concludes by noting that each equation has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice depends on the ease of measuring mass or volume.

###### Takeaways

- 🧪 Solute Concentration Measurement: The video discusses different methods to quantify the concentration of a solute in a solution.
- 📊 Mass Percent (% M/M): The first method explained is mass percent, which is calculated by dividing the mass of the solute by the total mass of the solution (solute + solvent) and multiplying by 100.
- 🔍 Sample Problem: A sample problem is provided to illustrate the calculation of mass percent, using 8 grams of table salt dissolved in 62 grams of water, resulting in an 11.4% M/M concentration.
- 📝 Importance of Definitions: The script emphasizes the importance of understanding specific terms like 'solute' and 'solvent' to accurately perform calculations.
- 🤔 Formula Variations: It's noted that formulas can be written in different ways but still represent the same calculation, highlighting the need to understand the underlying concepts.
- 🍺 Volume Percent (% V/V): The second method introduced is volume percent, which uses the volume of the solute and the total volume of the solution to determine concentration.
- 🥃 Ethanol Example: An example calculation for ethanol in water is given, showing how to find the volume percent concentration, which is useful in understanding alcohol content in beverages.
- 💧 Total Volume Consideration: The script points out that when mixing liquids, the total volume might not exactly equal the sum of individual volumes due to molecular interactions.
- 🧂 Mass over Volume Percent (% M/V): The third method discussed is mass over volume percent, which combines mass of the solute with the volume of the solution, requiring specific units (grams and milliliters, respectively).
- 🧂 Salt Solution Example: A problem involving a 14-gram salt solution in 143 milliliters of water is used to demonstrate the calculation of mass over volume percent, yielding a 9.79% M/V concentration.
- 📚 Contextual Use of Equations: The video concludes by explaining that different equations are useful in different contexts, depending on whether mass or volume is more easily measurable.

###### Q & A

### What is the purpose of measuring solute concentration in a solution?

-The purpose of measuring solute concentration is to quantify how much solute is dissolved in a solvent relative to the total volume or mass of the solution, which helps in describing how concentrated the solution is.

### What is mass percent (% by mass) and how is it calculated?

-Mass percent, also known as percent by mass (% m/m), is a method to express the concentration of a solute in a solution as a percentage. It is calculated by dividing the mass of the solute by the total mass of the solution (solute plus solvent) and then multiplying by 100.

### Can you provide an example of calculating mass percent concentration?

-Sure, if you have 8 grams of table salt (solute) dissolved in 62 grams of water (solvent), the mass percent concentration would be calculated as (8g solute / (8g solute + 62g solvent)) * 100 = 11.4% m/m.

### What does the term 'solute' refer to in the context of solutions?

-In the context of solutions, the solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent. It is the component that is present in a lesser amount compared to the solvent.

### What is the difference between mass percent and volume percent?

-Mass percent (% m/m) is based on the mass of the solute and the total mass of the solution, while volume percent (% v/v) is based on the volume of the solute and the total volume of the solution.

### How is volume percent concentration calculated?

-Volume percent concentration is calculated by dividing the volume of the solute by the total volume of the solution and then multiplying by 100.

### Can you give an example of calculating volume percent concentration?

-If you mix 7 milliliters of ethanol (solute) with 43 milliliters of water (solvent), the volume percent concentration would be (7mL solute / (7mL solute + 43mL solvent)) * 100 = 14% v/v.

### What is the significance of using parentheses and specific units when expressing concentration?

-Parentheses and specific units are used to indicate the method of calculation used to determine the concentration. This clarity is important to communicate the exact formula used, avoiding confusion with other possible methods.

### What is the concept of 'mass over volume percent' or '% m/v'?

-Mass over volume percent (% m/v) is a concentration method that uses the mass of the solute in grams and the volume of the solution in milliliters. It is expressed as a percentage and is calculated by multiplying the ratio of solute mass to solution volume by 100.

### Why are there different methods for expressing solute concentration?

-Different methods for expressing solute concentration exist because they are suited to different situations. For instance, mass percent is useful when the mass of the components is easy to measure, while volume percent is more convenient when dealing with liquids where volume measurements are more practical.

### How can you determine which concentration method to use in a given situation?

-The choice of concentration method depends on the ease of measurement and the nature of the substances involved. If you are working with solid solutes and liquids, mass percent might be more appropriate. If you are mixing liquids, volume percent could be more convenient.

###### Outlines

##### 🧪 Understanding Solute Concentration: Mass Percent

This paragraph introduces the concept of solute concentration, specifically focusing on mass percent, also known as percent by mass (% M/M). The formula for calculating mass percent is presented, which involves dividing the mass of the solute by the total mass of the solution (solute plus solvent) and multiplying by 100 to express the result as a percentage. An example problem is given where 8 grams of table salt are dissolved in 62 grams of water, resulting in a mass percent concentration of 11.4% M/M. The importance of precise terminology is emphasized, and viewers are encouraged to pause and attempt the calculation themselves. The paragraph also clarifies that the formula can be written in different but equivalent ways, highlighting the importance of understanding the definitions of solution components.

##### 🍺 Exploring Volume Percent and Its Applications

The second paragraph delves into volume percent, or percent by volume (% V/V), which is calculated by dividing the volume of the solute by the total volume of the solution and multiplying by 100. An example is provided where 7 milliliters of ethanol are mixed with 43 milliliters of water, yielding a volume percent of 14% V. The paragraph explains that while the total volume of mixed liquids may not always exactly match the sum of individual volumes due to molecular interactions, for most practical purposes, this approximation is sufficiently accurate. The concept is related to real-world applications, such as alcohol content in beverages, with a mention of beer commercials indicating alcohol by volume. The paragraph also touches on the utility of different concentration measurement methods, suggesting that the choice of method depends on the ease of measuring mass or volume in a given situation.

##### 🧂 Mass Over Volume Percent: A Hybrid Concentration Measure

The third paragraph introduces mass over volume percent (% M/V), a hybrid measure that combines mass and volume units, with the mass of the solute in grams and the volume of the solution in milliliters. The calculation involves dividing the mass of the solute by the volume of the solution and multiplying by 100 to get a percentage. An example calculation is presented where 14 grams of table salt are dissolved to make a 143-milliliter solution, resulting in a mass over volume percent of 9.79% M/V. The paragraph emphasizes the specificity of units required for this measurement and provides a practical example to illustrate how to determine the saltiness of a solution. It also discusses the relative saltiness indicated by the numerical value, with higher percentages signifying a saltier solution.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### 💡Solute Concentration

##### 💡Mass Percent (% M/M)

##### 💡Volume Percent (% V/V)

##### 💡Mass Over Volume Percent (% M/V)

##### 💡Solution

##### 💡Solute

##### 💡Solvent

##### 💡Equation Variations

##### 💡Units

##### 💡Concentration

##### 💡Beer Commercials

###### Highlights

Introduction to solute concentration measurement methods.

Explanation of mass percent (percent by mass) as a concentration unit.

Formula for calculating mass percent concentration.

Sample problem calculation for mass percent concentration of table salt in water.

Importance of specific terminology in understanding and calculating concentration.

Alternative formula representation for mass percent concentration.

Clarification on the equivalence of different mass percent formula representations.

Introduction to volume percent (percent by volume) as a concentration unit.

Formula for calculating volume percent concentration.

Sample problem calculation for volume percent concentration of ethanol in water.

Discussion on the practicality of volume percent in measuring liquid mixtures.

Real-world application of volume percent in beer commercials.

Introduction to mass over volume percent (percent M/V).

Formula for calculating mass over volume percent concentration.

Sample problem calculation for mass over volume percent concentration of table salt in water.

Explanation of when to use mass over volume percent concentration.

Highlight on the significance of units in mass over volume percent concentration.

Anticipation for the next video lecture focusing on a disliked equation.

###### Transcripts

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