CAUSES of Migration 1750-1900 [AP World History] Unit 6 Topic 6 (6.6)

Heimler's History
6 Feb 202007:20
EducationalLearning
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TLDRThis video from Heimler's History explores the migration patterns from 1750-1900, driven by economic and environmental factors post-Industrial Revolution. It discusses three main causes of migration: labor systems, challenges faced in home countries, and the establishment of settler colonies. Highlighting the movement of Indians, Chinese, and Japanese laborers, as well as the Irish and Japanese diasporas, the video reveals the complex interplay between global economic demands, labor conditions, and the personal struggles that led to significant population shifts.

Takeaways
  • 🌍 Globalization of economies due to the Industrial Revolution led to increased migration patterns from 1750-1900.
  • 🏭 Industrial factories' demand for raw materials and labor led to migration through labor systems, including indentured servitude and contract labor.
  • 📜 The abolition of slavery created a need for alternative labor sources, prompting migrations from India, China, and Japan to various colonies.
  • 🔄 Indentured servants migrated to new lands, worked for a set period to pay off their passage, and then were free, influencing the culture of their new homes.
  • 📉 Contract laborers, though not technically slaves, faced harsh conditions similar to slavery, leading to improved treatment laws by 1877.
  • 🏛️ Penal colonies, such as in Australia and Devil's Island, involved sending convicts to perform hard labor, with some returning home after serving their sentences.
  • 🌪️ Migration in the face of challenges, such as poverty, famine, and discrimination, led to the formation of diasporas, like the Chinese in the US West.
  • 🍠 The Great Potato Famine in Ireland resulted in mass emigration to escape starvation, with many Irish finding work in factories and facing ongoing religious discrimination.
  • 🏡 Settler colonies were established for people to live and work, with technical experts like engineers and geologists migrating to extend industrialization and western technology.
  • 🌉 Japanese migration to places like Mexico, Hawaii, and the western US established a diaspora that would have significant impacts during World War II.
Q & A
  • What were the economic and environmental realities that caused patterns of migration from 1750-1900?

    -The economic realities included the Industrial Revolution and its demand for raw materials, which led to an increase in labor migration. Environmental realities were not explicitly mentioned in the script, but can be inferred as factors like the potato blight in Ireland, which led to the Great Potato Famine and subsequent migration.

  • How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to globalization?

    -The Industrial Revolution contributed to globalization by increasing the demand for raw materials, which led to economic imperialism and the establishment of new transportation methods like steamships and railroads, facilitating global trade and movement of people.

  • What were the three main reasons for migration during the period of 1750-1900?

    -The three main reasons for migration were labor systems, challenges faced in their home countries, and the establishment of settler colonies.

  • How did the abolition of slavery affect labor migration?

    -The abolition of slavery created a demand for alternative low-wage labor, leading to the migration of people like Indians, Chinese, and Japanese to work in plantations and other labor-intensive industries under systems such as indentured servitude and contract labor.

  • What was the role of indentured servitude in labor migration?

    -Indentured servitude allowed poor laborers to work for a set number of years to pay for their passage to a new land. After completing their indenture, they were free and could influence the culture of the receiving country.

  • What were the conditions of contract laborers who replaced enslaved people?

    -While not technically slaves, contract laborers often worked in conditions very similar to slavery, especially in the sugarcane fields of the Caribbean. Laws were eventually passed to improve their treatment.

  • How did the penal colony system function in labor migration?

    -Convicts were sent to penal colonies like Australia and Devil's Island to perform hard labor on projects such as building railroads. Some maintained records for government oversight. Upon completion of their sentences, many returned to their home countries.

  • What is a diaspora and how did it relate to migration during this period?

    -A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a different geographic location. Migration in the face of challenges, such as poverty, famine, or political discrimination, led to the formation of diasporas, such as the Chinese diaspora in the western United States.

  • What factors led to the migration of Irish people during this period?

    -The Irish migration was driven by political reasons, such as the discrimination faced by Irish Roman Catholics after the Act of Union in 1801, and the Great Potato Famine starting in 1845, which led to widespread hunger and emigration, especially to the United States.

  • What was the purpose of settler colonies and who were the main migrants to these colonies?

    -Settler colonies were established for people to live and work in territories controlled by colonial powers, extending industrialization and western technology. Main migrants included technical experts like engineers and geologists, who contributed to infrastructure and resource development.

  • How did the migration of Japanese people differ from other labor migrations during this period?

    -While many Japanese also migrated for labor opportunities, such as working on sugar plantations, they also attempted to establish their own empire, notably in Mexico, and formed a diaspora in places like Hawaii and the western United States, which had significant consequences later on.

Outlines
00:00
🌍 Global Migration and Labor Systems (1750-1900)

This paragraph discusses the patterns of migration from 1750 to 1900, driven by economic and environmental factors following the Industrial Revolution. It highlights three main causes of migration: labor systems, challenges faced in home countries, and the establishment of settler colonies. The first section focuses on labor migration, detailing the demand for raw materials in industrial factories and the subsequent need for labor, which led to the replacement of enslaved people with indentured servants and contract laborers from India, China, and Japan. The second section addresses migration due to challenges such as poverty, famine, and discrimination, with examples including the Irish Potato Famine and the Chinese diaspora in the United States. The final section explores the migration of technical experts to settler colonies to extend industrialization and western technology.

05:01
🍀 The Irish Potato Famine and Diverse Migrations

This paragraph delves into the Irish Potato Famine and its impact on global migration patterns. It explains how the blight on potato crops led to mass emigration from Ireland, particularly to the United States, where the Irish faced ongoing religious discrimination but found better economic opportunities. The paragraph also touches on the discrimination against Irish Catholics in the UK and the formation of a diaspora in various locations. Additionally, it discusses other migrations, such as Indians to Mauritius and Chinese to the Trans-Continental railroad in America, and the Japanese diaspora in Mexico, Hawaii, and the western United States, hinting at future consequences during World War II.

Mindmap
Keywords
💡Imperialism
Imperialism refers to the policy or ideology of extending a nation's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means. In the context of the video, it is discussed as a factor contributing to the globalization of economies and the subsequent patterns of migration from 1750-1900, where imperial powers often controlled labor systems and economic exploitation in their colonies.
💡Migration
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another, often driven by economic, environmental, or political factors. In the video, migration is the central theme, with a focus on how economic and environmental realities influenced the movement of people from 1750-1900, including labor systems, challenges faced in their home countries, and the establishment of settler colonies.
💡Labor Systems
Labor systems refer to the various methods of organizing work and the employment of laborers. The video highlights three main labor systems that influenced migration: indentured servitude, contract labor, and penal colonies. These systems were used to replace the labor previously provided by enslaved people, especially after the abolition of slavery.
💡Indentured Servitude
Indentured servitude is a form of labor where individuals agree to work for a set period of time in exchange for their passage to a new land. It was a common way for poor laborers to migrate to colonies, where they would work to pay off their debt and then gain their freedom. This system had a significant cultural impact on the receiving countries, as seen in the Indian influence on Fiji, Trinidad, and Mauritius.
💡Contract Labor
Contract labor is a form of employment where workers agree to work for a set period of time at a low wage, often in a different country. This system emerged as a replacement for slave labor, particularly in the sugarcane fields of the Caribbean after the British abolished the slave trade. Despite not being slaves in name, these laborers often faced conditions very similar to slavery.
💡Penal Colony
A penal colony is a settlement where convicted criminals are sent to serve their sentences, typically performing hard labor. The video mentions the British establishment of a penal colony in Australia and the French penal colony on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where prisoners lived in miserable conditions and were forced into hard labor.
💡Diaspora
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a different geographic location. It often refers to groups of people who have migrated and established communities in various parts of the world, maintaining a connection to their homeland. In the video, the term is used to describe the Chinese diaspora in the western United States and the Irish diaspora resulting from the Great Potato Famine.
💡Great Potato Famine
The Great Potato Famine, also known as the Irish Potato Famine, was a period of mass starvation and disease in Ireland from 1845 to 1852, caused by potato blight. This catastrophe led to the death of a significant portion of the Irish population and the mass migration of millions of Irish people to other countries, particularly the United States.
💡Settler Colonies
Settler colonies are territories that are established for the purpose of permanent settlement by people from the colonizing country. These colonies often involve the extension of the colonizing power's culture, language, and institutions into the new territories. In the video, settler colonies like Canada, South Africa, and Australia are mentioned as destinations for migrants, including technical experts, who contributed to the extension of industrialization and western technology.
💡Technical Experts
Technical experts are individuals with specialized knowledge and skills in fields such as engineering, geology, and other technical disciplines. In the context of the video, these experts played a crucial role in the establishment of settler colonies by applying their expertise to develop infrastructure and identify valuable resources in the new territories.
Highlights

The video discusses the migration patterns from 1750-1900 due to economic and environmental realities.

Economies globalized as a result of the Industrial Revolution, leading to new waves of migration.

Three main causes of migration: labor systems, challenges in home regions, and settler colonies.

Industrial factories increased demand for labor, leading to the use of enslaved people and later indentured servants.

Indians migrated to British colonies, Chinese to California and British Malaya, and Japanese to Hawaii, Peru, and Cuba.

Indentured servitude allowed laborers to work for years to pay for their passage to new lands.

Contract labor was a system where Chinese and Indian workers replaced enslaved people, especially in the Caribbean.

Penal colonies were established for convicts to do hard labor, such as in Australia and Devil's Island in French Guiana.

Some migrants were tricked into signing bad contracts, leading to coerced labor.

Migration in the face of challenges was driven by poverty, famine, and the search for better opportunities.

Indians and Chinese migrated due to poverty, and Irish due to the Great Potato Famine.

Settler colonies were established for people to live and work, such as in Canada, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.

Technical experts like engineers and geologists migrated to settler colonies to extend industrialization and western technology.

Japanese attempted to colonize Mexico and established a diaspora in Hawaii and the western United States.

The migration patterns discussed in the video are part of Unit 6 Topic 6 of AP World History.

The video uses humor and analogies to make the historical content more engaging and understandable.

Transcripts
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