Object Oriented Programming (OOP) in C++ Course

2 Feb 202190:25
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TLDRIn this programming tutorial video, instructor Saldina walks through key object-oriented programming concepts including classes, objects, encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism. Using C++ code examples, Saldina explains how to structure real-world entities like cars and employees into reusable code components. The video covers creating class attributes and behaviors, restricting access with public and private modifiers, inheriting common functionality between classes, and allowing derived classes to override base class methods. Saldina aims to not only demonstrate these coding techniques but communicate how object-oriented principles facilitate code organization and reuse.

  • ๐Ÿ˜€ OOP allows representing real-life entities in code using classes and objects
  • ๐Ÿ‘ฉโ€๐Ÿ’ป Classes bundle data and methods that operate on the data
  • ๐Ÿ” Encapsulation hides implementation details within a class using access modifiers
  • ๐ŸŽญ Abstraction simplifies complex code by exposing only essential details
  • ๐Ÿ‘ช Inheritance allows classes to acquire properties and behaviors from parent classes
  • ๐Ÿ”€ Polymorphism allows treating derived classes through their parent class interface
  • ๐Ÿ“ Constructors initialize class properties when an object is created
  • ๐Ÿ›  Methods define object behaviors and implement class abstractions
  • ๐Ÿ— Getters and setters control access to private class data members
  • ๐Ÿ’ก Using OOP principles results in modular, maintainable code
Q & A
  • What is OOP and what problem does it aim to solve?

    -OOP stands for Object-Oriented Programming. It is a programming paradigm that aims to represent real-life entities like objects, attributes, and behaviors in computer programs to solve complex problems.

  • What are the four main principles of OOP?

    -The four main principles of OOP are: encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism.

  • How does encapsulation help in OOP?

    -Encapsulation bundles data and methods within a class and prevents direct access to ensure data integrity. It provides control over the data through getter and setter methods.

  • What is abstraction in OOP?

    -Abstraction hides complex implementation details behind a simple interface. It provides only the essential details to the user to make things simple.

  • What is inheritance and how does it help?

    -Inheritance allows a derived/child class to acquire properties and behaviors from a parent/base class. It promotes reuse of code and behaviors across classes.

  • What is polymorphism in OOP?

    -Polymorphism allows objects and methods to take many forms. A parent class reference can refer to a child class object which allows different implementations of the same method.

  • What are classes and objects in OOP?

    -A class is a blueprint that describes attributes and behaviors. An object is an instance created from a class that contains real data values and methods.

  • What is a constructor in OOP?

    -A constructor is a special method that initializes objects. It has the same name as the class and no return type. It is called automatically when an object is created.

  • What are access modifiers in OOP?

    -Access modifiers like public, private, and protected control accessibility of class members. Private restricts access to the class, public allows global access, protected allows access in child classes.

  • How are getters and setters used in OOP?

    -Getters return private properties and setters modify them. They provide controlled access which aids encapsulation. Validation can be added in setters.

๐Ÿ˜€ Introduction to speaker and course

The speaker introduces herself as Saldina, a software engineer who makes programming tutorials on YouTube. She introduces the video course on object-oriented programming which will cover basics to advanced concepts in C++ code examples.

๐Ÿ“ Explaining classes, objects, attributes and behaviors

The paragraph explains the concepts of classes and objects in OOP. Classes represent real-life entities with attributes and behaviors. Objects are instances created from classes. An example of car class with attributes like name and behaviors like drive() is shown.

๐ŸŒŸ Discussing access modifiers in classes

The speaker discusses three access modifiers in C++ classes - private, public and protected. Private members are only accessible within the class, public can be accessed from outside the class. Protected is accessible in derived classes. An example fixing private access on Employee class is shown.

๐Ÿ“˜ Construction and deconstruction of objects

The paragraph explains how constructors work in C++ classes, to initialize object attributes. Rules and example of creating constructor in Employee class is given. How constructor of base class is called from derived Developer class through inheritance is also shown.

๐Ÿ’Ž Introducing encapsulation with getter/setter

Encapsulation is explained as bundling data with methods operating on it within class, preventing direct external interaction. Getter and setter methods control access to private properties. Example getters/setters for Employee name, company etc. controlling access are given.

๐Ÿ”ฎ The what, why and how of abstraction

Abstraction means hiding complex implementation behind a simple interface. Example of smartphone camera button hiding complex logic is given. Abstract class with askPromotion() method contract is implemented in Employee class, forcing contract rules.

๐ŸŽ Exchanging gifts through inheritance

Inheritance allows a derived subclass to inherit attributes and behaviors from a base superclass. Examples of ElectricCar and ConventionalCar inheriting from base Car class are given. How inheritance works through Developer subclass example is shown.

๐Ÿ”€ Achieving polymorphism through many forms

Polymorphism allows a base class reference to refer to derived class objects. Virtual functions help achieve runtime polymorphism. Example of base Employee pointer referring to derived Developer and Teacher objects is given.

๐ŸŽ“ Summary of OOP principles explained so far

The speaker summarizes the key principles of OOP covered so far - encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance and polymorphism. Transition to continue concepts is made.

โ“ Clarification sought on inheritance access

A question is posed by the speaker whether base class members are directly accessible in derived class, or through getters. After testing, protected access modifier is shown to enable direct access in subclasses.

๐ŸŽ’ Inheriting attributes, behaviors and constructs

Additional Teacher subclass inheriting from Employee is created. Constructor creation, inheritances rules and access concepts are reinforced through Teacher class examples.

๐Ÿ˜Ž Becoming famous through polymorphism

More demonstration done on achieving polymorphic behavior by creating virtual function in base Employee class. How correct overriden methods in derived classes are identified and executed is shown.

๐Ÿ’กobject-oriented programming
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm where programs are organized around objects and data rather than actions and logic. In the video, OOP is presented as a way to represent real-life entities like cars, games, animals etc. in code, by bundling together data and methods into classes. For example, a Car class can contain data like color, price, maxSpeed etc. and methods like drive() and brake().
A class is a blueprint or prototype that defines the data and behaviors of an object. In OOP, classes are the building blocks that are used to create objects. For example, the video shows how an Employee class can contain data like name, age, company etc. and methods like introduceYourself(). Classes help organize code and model real-world entities.
An object is an instance of a class, created from a class blueprint. It contains data and behaviors defined by its class. For example, the video creates employee1 and employee2 as specific objects from the Employee class. Each employee object can have distinct name, age etc. values but share the class methods.
Encapsulation refers to bundling data and methods within a class, and preventing direct access to the data from outside the class. It is done using access modifiers like private. The video shows how getters and setters can provide access to private data while restricting direct modifications.
Inheritance allows a derived or child class to inherit data and behaviors from a parent or base class. In the video Developer and Teacher classes inherit from the Employee base class. This means they get access to Employee's data like name, age etc. and methods like askForPromotion().
Polymorphism means taking multiple forms. In OOP, it describes a derived class object being referenced by a base class reference variable. The video shows how a base Employee pointer can point to derived Developer or Teacher objects. When Employee's virtual work() method is called on these objects, their overridden implementations are invoked.
Abstraction refers to exposing only essential features of a class while hiding internal complexity and implementations. For example, the video abstracts the complex task of deciding employee promotions into a simple askForPromotion() method. Derived classes implement the specifics of this method.
A constructor is a special method that is invoked automatically whenever an object is created from a class. It is used to initialize the object's state. The video shows how passing parameters to Employee's constructor sets the name, company and age for each new Employee object created.
๐Ÿ’กaccess modifiers
Access modifiers like public, private and protected control accessibility of class members. private restricts access only within the class, while public allows access from other classes. protected allows access in the derived class. The video uses these modifiers to implement encapsulation.
๐Ÿ’กvirtual method
A virtual method is a method that can be overridden in derived classes. Declaring Employee's work() as virtual allows Developer and Teacher to override it with their specific implementations. Calling work() on their objects then invokes these overridden methods.

OOP is a programming paradigm which is a set of rules and ideas and concepts that is a standard in programming.

A class is a building block of OOP and a user-defined data type that serves as a blueprint for creating objects.

Everything inside a class in C++ is private by default, meaning class members cannot be accessed from outside the class.

Encapsulation bundles data and methods within a class to prevent direct external interaction, but allows interaction through public methods.

Abstraction hides complex implementation details behind a simple interface to reduce complexity for users.

Inheritance allows a derived child class to inherit attributes and behaviors from a parent base class.

Polymorphism describes the ability of a method to have different implementations or forms based on which class it is called on.

A virtual function tells derived classes to override the method if they have their own implementation.

OOP allows modeling real world entities like cars with classes that have attributes like color and behaviors like driving.

Getters and setters allow controlled interaction with encapsulated class data.

An abstract class defines an interface that derived classes must implement.

Making inheritance public allows access to inherited base class members.

A class constructor initializes new class instances.

Derived classes should call base class constructors to initialize inherited members.

Protected inheritance allows access in derived classes but not outside the class.

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