# Work and Power

TLDRIn this AP Physics essentials video, Mr. Andersen explains the concepts of work and power. He illustrates that work is the application of force over a distance, measured in joules, and power is the rate at which work is done, measured in watts. Using examples of lifting crates with different motors and a pitcher throwing a ball, he emphasizes the importance of the direction of force relative to the movement for work to be done. The video also explores how to calculate work with varying force angles and the use of graphs to determine work without calculus. The historical context of James Watt's contribution to these concepts is briefly mentioned.

###### Takeaways

- π¨ Work is defined as applying a force over a distance to move an object and is measured in joules.
- β±οΈ Power is the rate at which work is done, calculated as the change in work over the change in time, and is measured in watts.
- ποΈ For identical forces overcoming gravity, both do the same amount of work despite differences in time taken.
- π When no motion occurs despite a force being applied, no work is done, as there is no distance moved.
- π’ The formula for work is the product of the force applied and the distance the object is moved in the direction of the force.
- π To calculate work with non-parallel forces, trigonometry is used to determine the component of force in the direction of motion.
- π’ For inclined forces, the work done can be found using the formula: force times the cosine of the angle with the direction of motion.
- π The area under a force versus distance graph represents the total work done, which can be calculated without calculus by breaking it into shapes.
- π In a physics lab, work can be measured using tools like spring scales or force sensors, and graphing the force-distance relationship.
- π James Watt's work on the concept of power and energy was pivotal in understanding mechanical and thermodynamic systems.

###### Q & A

### What is the definition of work in physics?

-Work in physics is defined as applying a force to an object to move it over a certain distance in the direction of the force.

### How is power different from work?

-Power is different from work in that it measures how quickly work is done, calculated as the change in work over the change in time.

### If no motion occurs when a force is applied, is work done on the system?

-No, if there is no motion within the system or object when a force is applied, no work is done on the system.

### What unit is used to measure work?

-Work is measured in joules.

### What are the two essential components required to do work on an object?

-The two essential components required to do work on an object are a force and a distance moved in the direction of the force.

### How is work calculated when the force is applied at an angle to the direction of motion?

-When the force is applied at an angle, work is calculated using the component of the force parallel to the direction of motion, which is found by multiplying the force by the cosine of the angle.

### What is the relationship between the area under a force versus distance graph and work?

-The area under a force versus distance graph represents the total amount of work done on the object.

### Who is James Watt, and how is he related to the concept of power?

-James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose name is used as a unit of power in the International System of Units (watt), representing the rate at which work is done.

### How did James Watt apply the concept of work to pressure and volume in a mechanical system?

-James Watt, along with Jonathan Southern, applied the concept of work to pressure and volume by using a piston in a cylinder to measure both the pressure and the volume change, essentially creating a pressure versus volume graph to calculate work in a mechanical system.

### What is the significance of the force versus distance graph in the context of a gas?

-In the context of a gas, the force versus distance graph becomes a pressure versus volume graph, which is used to calculate the work done during processes such as compression or expansion of the gas.

### How can the concept of work and power be experimentally measured in a physics lab?

-In a physics lab, work and power can be measured using tools like spring scales, force sensors, and by graphing force versus distance or pressure versus volume curves to calculate the area under the curve, representing work done.

###### Outlines

##### π‘ Work and Power in Physics

This segment introduces the concepts of work and power within the context of physics. Work is defined as the application of force over a distance, and power is how quickly this work is done. Using two motors (A and B) lifting crates as an example, the video illustrates that both motors do the same amount of work since they move the same force over the same distance. However, motor A, being faster, demonstrates greater power. The video emphasizes the importance of both the quantity of work and the speed at which it is performed. Work is quantified as the force applied times the distance moved, measured in joules. Power, on the other hand, is the change in work over time, measured in watts. Examples are provided to explain how work and power are calculated, including situations where no work is done if there is no movement despite the application of force.

##### π Applying Work and Power Concepts

The second paragraph delves into the application of work and power concepts beyond simple examples, introducing James Watt's work on pressure and volume in gases. It explains how, in mechanical systems, work is a force applied over a distance, but with gases, the concept is explored through pressure versus volume curves. A historical experiment by James Watt and Jonathan Southern using a piston, a cylinder, and a pressure gauge is recounted to illustrate how work can be measured in different contexts. The segment concludes by encouraging the viewer to learn to calculate work using force versus distance graphs, understand the relationship between work and energy added to a system, and recognize the significance of pressure versus volume curves in gas-related physics, paving the way for discussions in AP Physics 2.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### π‘Work

##### π‘Power

##### π‘Force

##### π‘Distance

##### π‘Energy

##### π‘Joule

##### π‘Trigonometry

##### π‘Watt

##### π‘Mechanical System

##### π‘Graph

##### π‘James Watt

###### Highlights

Work is defined as applying a force for a given distance.

Power is the rate at which work is done, indicating how quickly the work is performed.

Identical crates lifted by two different motors demonstrate that both do the same amount of work but at different power levels.

Work is the amount of energy added to a system through an external force.

Work is measured in joules, which represent the amount of work done on a system.

For work to be done, there must be a force applied and a distance moved in the direction of the force.

Applying a force without motion does not result in work.

A 6-newton force applied horizontally with no movement results in 0 joules of work.

Calculating work involves multiplying the force applied by the distance moved in the direction of the force.

When force is applied at an angle, trigonometry is used to determine the parallel component of the force for work calculation.

Power is calculated as the change in work over the change in time.

A 16-newton force moving an object 2 meters in 3 seconds results in 11 watts of power.

Increasing the speed of work performance increases power; moving the same object in 0.5 seconds results in 64 watts of power.

In a physics lab, work can be measured using a spring scale or a force sensor over a known distance.

Graphing force versus distance allows for the calculation of work by finding the area under the curve.

James Watt's contributions to understanding work extended to pressure and volume in mechanical systems.

Watt and Southern's method for measuring work in gases involved a piston with a pressure gauge and a pencil.

The concept of work applies to both mechanical systems (force vs. distance) and gases (pressure vs. volume).

###### Transcripts

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