# All IGCSE Physics Equations you need to know for the new syllabus

TLDRThis video script offers a concise recap of essential physics equations for IGCSE board exams, including new topics from space physics. It covers motion equations, density, pressure, forces, momentum, energy conservation, and thermodynamics. The script also delves into waves, optics, electricity, magnetism, nuclear physics, and the electromagnetic spectrum. It explains concepts like acceleration, gravity, work, power, and the Hubble constant, providing foundational knowledge for students preparing for their exams.

###### Takeaways

- π The script is a recap of physics equations for IGCSE board exams, including new topics from space physics.
- π Motion equations are explained, emphasizing the difference between displacement (a vector) and distance (a scalar), and how they relate to velocity and speed.
- β±οΈ The concept of acceleration is introduced as the rate of change of velocity over time, and its mathematical relationship to displacement.
- π΅ The script explains the relationship between gravitational force, mass, and acceleration, highlighting the specific values for gravity on Earth.
- π The 'SUVA' equations are mentioned, which are useful for solving problems involving displacement, initial velocity, final velocity, acceleration, and time.
- π‘οΈ Density, pressure, and other properties of matter are discussed, including how they relate to volume, area, and the behavior of liquids.
- π The conservation of momentum in isolated systems is highlighted, along with the concept of forces in equilibrium.
- π‘ Energy concepts are covered, including work done, kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and elastic potential energy, with an emphasis on energy conservation in isolated systems.
- π Electricity and magnetism topics are summarized, including charge, current, resistance, power, and the function of transformers.
- π Space physics is introduced, covering concepts like average orbital speed and the Hubble constant, which relate to the movement and observation of galaxies.
- βοΈ Nuclear physics basics are outlined, including the composition of atoms, the properties of different particles, and the principles of nuclear decay.

###### Q & A

### What is the difference between displacement and distance in the context of motion?

-Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to the change in position from the initial to the final point, taking direction into account. Distance, on the other hand, is a scalar quantity that measures the total path length traveled, without considering direction.

### How is average velocity calculated?

-Average velocity is calculated by dividing the total displacement by the total time taken. It is a measure of the average rate at which an object changes its position over a period of time.

### What is acceleration and how is it related to velocity and displacement?

-Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time. Mathematically, it is the derivative of velocity with respect to time, and since velocity itself is the derivative of displacement with respect to time, acceleration is the second derivative of displacement with respect to time.

### What is the relationship between gravitational force (weight) and gravitational acceleration on Earth?

-The gravitational force acting on an object (its weight) is equal to its mass multiplied by the gravitational acceleration (g). On Earth, g is approximately 9.81 meters per second squared.

### What are the SUVAT equations and how are they used?

-The SUVAT equations are a set of equations used to describe motion: s = displacement, u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, a = acceleration, and t = time. They are useful for solving problems involving the motion of objects under constant acceleration.

### How is density defined and what are its units?

-Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Its units are kilograms per meter cubed (kg/m^3).

### What is the relationship between pressure, force, and area?

-Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area. It is measured in Newtons per square meter (N/m^2), which is equivalent to one Pascal.

### What is Hooke's Law and how is it represented mathematically?

-Hooke's Law states that the force (F) in a spring is directly proportional to the displacement (Ξx) from its equilibrium position, and it is represented as F = -kΞx, where k is the spring constant.

### What is the conservation of momentum principle in an isolated system?

-In an isolated system, the total momentum remains constant. This means that the initial momentum is equal to the final momentum, assuming no external forces act on the system.

### How is work done related to energy?

-Work done is a measure of energy transfer. When a force causes a displacement, work is done on or by an object, and this is equivalent to a transfer of energy, measured in joules (J).

### What is the difference between an isolated system and an open system in terms of energy and matter exchange?

-An isolated system does not exchange matter or energy with its surroundings. In contrast, an open system allows for the exchange of both energy and matter with its environment.

### What is the Hubble constant and how is it used in space physics?

-The Hubble constant (H0) is a measure of the rate at which galaxies are moving away from us, expressed as the ratio of the recession velocity to the distance from the Earth. It is approximately 2.2 x 10^-18 seconds and is used to understand the expansion of the universe.

###### Outlines

##### π Physics Equations Recap for IGCSE Board Exams

This paragraph provides a comprehensive review of physics equations essential for the IGCSE board exams in 2023, including new topics from space physics. It begins with the equations of motion, explaining the difference between displacement (a vector quantity) and speed (a scalar quantity), and how they relate to velocity. The paragraph delves into the concept of acceleration as the rate of change of velocity over time, and how it's mathematically represented as the second derivative of displacement with respect to time. It also covers the relationship between gravitational force, weight, and mass, highlighting the standard gravity value on Earth. The 'suvat' equations are introduced, which are useful for solving problems involving motion in later studies. The paragraph concludes with a brief overview of additional physics concepts such as density, pressure, force, momentum, and energy conservation in different systems, setting a foundation for further study at the A-level.

##### π§ Fundamental Principles of Energy, Work, and Thermodynamics

The second paragraph focuses on the principles of energy, work, and thermodynamics. It starts with the concept of work done, equating it to force applied over a distance, and introduces the cosine theta factor for considering perpendicular distances. The paragraph then explains various forms of energy including kinetic energy, gravitational potential energy, and elastic potential energy, all measured in joules. It discusses energy conservation in isolated systems, using the example of a pendulum to illustrate the conversion between kinetic and potential energy. The paragraph also covers power as the rate of energy transfer, measured in watts, and touches on temperature conversions between Kelvin and Celsius. It concludes with an introduction to latent heat and specific heat capacity, which are essential for understanding phase changes and temperature increases in substances, respectively.

##### π Space Physics and Electromagnetic Spectrum Overview

This paragraph introduces space physics and the electromagnetic spectrum. It begins with the concept of the average orbital speed of celestial bodies, relating it to the radius and period of orbit. The Hubble constant is introduced as a measure of the rate at which galaxies are moving away from Earth, with its value given as approximately 2.2 times 10 to the power of minus 18 seconds. The paragraph also presents a visual mnemonic for the electromagnetic spectrum, highlighting the order of increasing frequency and energy, and decreasing wavelength. The properties of different types of radiation, such as infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma radiation, are briefly discussed, emphasizing their frequency, energy, and penetrating abilities. The paragraph concludes with a brief mention of electricity and magnetism, including fundamental equations related to charge, current, resistance, power, and voltage, as well as the principles of transformers and nuclear physics.

##### βοΈ Nuclear Physics and Particle Interactions

The final paragraph delves into nuclear physics, starting with a basic overview of subatomic particles like protons, neutrons, and electrons. It explains that protons and neutrons are not fundamental but composed of quarks, and electrons are classified as leptons. The paragraph then discusses different types of radiation, including alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma radiation, detailing their properties such as charge, mass, speed, and ionizing effects. Nuclear decay equations are introduced, explaining how elements transform through processes like alpha decay, beta decay, and gamma decay. The paragraph concludes with an exploration of space physics, touching upon the Hubble constant and its implications for understanding the expansion of the universe.

###### Mindmap

###### Keywords

##### π‘Velocity

##### π‘Acceleration

##### π‘Gravity

##### π‘Density

##### π‘Pressure

##### π‘Momentum

##### π‘Force

##### π‘Energy

##### π‘Work

##### π‘Power

##### π‘Refractive Index

##### π‘Nuclear Physics

##### π‘Space Physics

###### Highlights

Introduction to IHCC Physics equations for board exams in 2023, including new space physics syllabus.

Explanation of velocity as displacement over time, distinguishing it from scalar speed.

Clarification on average velocity and average speed, and their equations.

Derivation of acceleration as the rate of change of velocity over time.

Equations relating mass, gravity, force, and acceleration, highlighting weight as the force experienced due to gravity.

Introduction to SUVAT equations for motion, applicable for A-level studies.

Discussion on density, moment of force, and pressure with their respective equations.

Explanation of Hooke's law and the concept of force in a spring.

Momentum conservation in isolated systems and its relation to Newton's laws.

Newton's second law of motion and the concept of force as change in momentum over time.

Introduction to energy, work done, and their relationship in various forms.

Conservation of energy in isolated systems and its practical implications.

Explanation of power as the rate of energy transfer, measured in watts.

Fundamentals of thermodynamics, including latent heat and specific heat capacity.

Gas laws and the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature.

Wave properties, including velocity, frequency, and wavelength, with Snell's law for refraction.

Electricity and magnetism concepts, including charge, current, resistance, and power.

Transformer principles and their role in voltage and current transformation.

Basics of nuclear physics, including particle composition and decay processes.

Space physics addition to the syllabus, including average orbital speed and Hubble's constant.

###### Transcripts

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